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Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Swaps* (*But Were Afraid To Ask)
Hello, dummies It's your old pal, Fuzzy. As I'm sure you've all noticed, a lot of the stuff that gets posted here is - to put it delicately - fucking ridiculous. More backwards-ass shit gets posted to wallstreetbets than you'd see on a Westboro Baptist community message board. I mean, I had a look at the daily thread yesterday and..... yeesh. I know, I know. We all make like the divine Laura Dern circa 1992 on the daily and stick our hands deep into this steaming heap of shit to find the nuggets of valuable and/or hilarious information within (thanks for reading, BTW). I agree. I love it just the way it is too. That's what makes WSB great. What I'm getting at is that a lot of the stuff that gets posted here - notwithstanding it being funny or interesting - is just... wrong. Like, fucking your cousin wrong. And to be clear, I mean the fucking your *first* cousin kinda wrong, before my Southerners in the back get all het up (simmer down, Billy Ray - I know Mabel's twice removed on your grand-sister's side). Truly, I try to let it slide. Idomybit to try and put you on the right path. Most of the time, I sleep easy no matter how badly I've seen someone explain what a bank liquidity crisis is. But out of all of those tens of thousands of misguided, autistic attempts at understanding the world of high finance, one thing gets so consistently - so *emphatically* - fucked up and misunderstood by you retards that last night I felt obligated at the end of a long work day to pull together this edition of Finance with Fuzzy just for you. It's so serious I'm not even going to make a u/pokimane gag. Have you guessed what it is yet? Here's a clue. It's in the title of the post. That's right, friends. Today in the neighborhood we're going to talk all about hedging in financial markets - spots, swaps, collars, forwards, CDS, synthetic CDOs, all that fun shit. Don't worry; I'm going to explain what all the scary words mean and how they impact your OTM RH positions along the way. We're going to break it down like this. (1) "What's a hedge, Fuzzy?" (2) Common Hedging Strategies and (3) All About ISDAs and Credit Default Swaps. Before we begin. For the nerds and JV traders in the back (and anyone else who needs to hear this up front) - I am simplifying these descriptions for the purposes of this post. I am also obviously not going to try and cover every exotic form of hedge under the sun or give a detailed summation of what caused the financial crisis. If you are interested in something specific ask a question, but don't try and impress me with your Investopedia skills or technical points I didn't cover; I will just be forced to flex my years of IRL experience on you in the comments and you'll look like a big dummy. TL;DR? Fuck you. There is no TL;DR. You've come this far already. What's a few more paragraphs? Put down the Cheetos and try to concentrate for the next 5-7 minutes. You'll learn something, and I promise I'll be gentle. Ready? Let's get started. 1.The Tao of Risk: Hedging as a Way of Life The simplest way to characterize what a hedge 'is' is to imagine every action having a binary outcome. One is bad, one is good. Red lines, green lines; uppie, downie. With me so far? Good. A 'hedge' is simply the employment of a strategy to mitigate the effect of your action having the wrong binary outcome. You wanted X, but you got Z! Frowny face. A hedge strategy introduces a third outcome. If you hedged against the possibility of Z happening, then you can wind up with Y instead. Not as good as X, but not as bad as Z. The technical definition I like to give my idiot juniors is as follows: Utilization of a defensive strategy to mitigate risk, at a fraction of the cost to capital of the risk itself. Congratulations. You just finished Hedging 101. "But Fuzzy, that's easy! I just sold a naked call against my 95% OTM put! I'm adequately hedged!". Spoiler alert: you're not (although good work on executing a collar, which I describe below). What I'm talking about here is what would be referred to as a 'perfect hedge'; a binary outcome where downside is totally mitigated by a risk management strategy. That's not how it works IRL. Pay attention; this is the tricky part. You can't take a single position and conclude that you're adequately hedged because risks are fluid, not static. So you need to constantly adjust your position in order to maximize the value of the hedge and insure your position. You also need to consider exposure to more than one category of risk. There are micro (specific exposure) risks, and macro (trend exposure) risks, and both need to factor into the hedge calculus. That's why, in the real world, the value of hedging depends entirely on the design of the hedging strategy itself. Here, when we say "value" of the hedge, we're not talking about cash money - we're talking about the intrinsic value of the hedge relative to the the risk profile of your underlying exposure. To achieve this, people hedge dynamically. In wallstreetbets terms, this means that as the value of your position changes, you need to change your hedges too. The idea is to efficiently and continuously distribute and rebalance risk across different states and periods, taking value from states in which the marginal cost of the hedge is low and putting it back into states where marginal cost of the hedge is high, until the shadow value of your underlying exposure is equalized across your positions. The punchline, I guess, is that one static position is a hedge in the same way that the finger paintings you make for your wife's boyfriend are art - it's technically correct, but you're only playing yourself by believing it. Anyway. Obviously doing this as a small potatoes trader is hard but it's worth taking into account. Enough basic shit. So how does this work in markets? 2. A Hedging Taxonomy The best place to start here is a practical question. What does a business need to hedge against? Think about the specific risk that an individual business faces. These are legion, so I'm just going to list a few of the key ones that apply to most corporates. (1) You have commodity risk for the shit you buy or the shit you use. (2) You have currency risk for the money you borrow. (3) You have rate risk on the debt you carry. (4) You have offtake risk for the shit you sell. Complicated, right? To help address the many and varied ways that shit can go wrong in a sophisticated market, smart operators like yours truly have devised a whole bundle of different instruments which can help you manage the risk. I might write about some of the more complicated ones in a later post if people are interested (CDO/CLOs, strip/stack hedges and bond swaps with option toggles come to mind) but let's stick to the basics for now. (i) Swaps A swap is one of the most common forms of hedge instrument, and they're used by pretty much everyone that can afford them. The language is complicated but the concept isn't, so pay attention and you'll be fine. This is the most important part of this section so it'll be the longest one. Swaps are derivative contracts with two counterparties (before you ask, you can't trade 'em on an exchange - they're OTC instruments only). They're used to exchange one cash flow for another cash flow of equal expected value; doing this allows you to take speculative positions on certain financial prices or to alter the cash flows of existing assets or liabilities within a business. "Wait, Fuzz; slow down! What do you mean sets of cash flows?". Fear not, little autist. Ol' Fuzz has you covered. The cash flows I'm talking about are referred to in swap-land as 'legs'. One leg is fixed - a set payment that's the same every time it gets paid - and the other is variable - it fluctuates (typically indexed off the price of the underlying risk that you are speculating on / protecting against). You set it up at the start so that they're notionally equal and the two legs net off; so at open, the swap is a zero NPV instrument. Here's where the fun starts. If the price that you based the variable leg of the swap on changes, the value of the swap will shift; the party on the wrong side of the move ponies up via the variable payment. It's a zero sum game. I'll give you an example using the most vanilla swap around; an interest rate trade. Here's how it works. You borrow money from a bank, and they charge you a rate of interest. You lock the rate up front, because you're smart like that. But then - quelle surprise! - the rate gets better after you borrow. Now you're bagholding to the tune of, I don't know, 5 bps. Doesn't sound like much but on a billion dollar loan that's a lot of money (a classic example of the kind of 'small, deep hole' that's terrible for profits). Now, if you had a swap contract on the rate before you entered the trade, you're set; if the rate goes down, you get a payment under the swap. If it goes up, whatever payment you're making to the bank is netted off by the fact that you're borrowing at a sub-market rate. Win-win! Or, at least, Lose Less / Lose Less. That's the name of the game in hedging. There are many different kinds of swaps, some of which are pretty exotic; but they're all different variations on the same theme. If your business has exposure to something which fluctuates in price, you trade swaps to hedge against the fluctuation. The valuation of swaps is also super interesting but I guarantee you that 99% of you won't understand it so I'm not going to try and explain it here although I encourage you to google it if you're interested. Because they're OTC, none of them are filed publicly. Someeeeeetimes you see an ISDA (dsicussed below) but the confirms themselves (the individual swaps) are not filed. You can usually read about the hedging strategy in a 10-K, though. For what it's worth, most modern credit agreements ban speculative hedging. Top tip: This is occasionally something worth checking in credit agreements when you invest in businesses that are debt issuers - being able to do this increases the risk profile significantly and is particularly important in times of economic volatility (ctrl+f "non-speculative" in the credit agreement to be sure). (ii) Forwards A forward is a contract made today for the future delivery of an asset at a pre-agreed price. That's it. "But Fuzzy! That sounds just like a futures contract!". I know. Confusing, right? Just like a futures trade, forwards are generally used in commodity or forex land to protect against price fluctuations. The differences between forwards and futures are small but significant. I'm not going to go into super boring detail because I don't think many of you are commodities traders but it is still an important thing to understand even if you're just an RH jockey, so stick with me. Just like swaps, forwards are OTC contracts - they're not publicly traded. This is distinct from futures, which are traded on exchanges (see The Ballad Of Big Dick Vick for some more color on this). In a forward, no money changes hands until the maturity date of the contract when delivery and receipt are carried out; price and quantity are locked in from day 1. As you now know having read about BDV, futures are marked to market daily, and normally people close them out with synthetic settlement using an inverse position. They're also liquid, and that makes them easier to unwind or close out in case shit goes sideways. People use forwards when they absolutely have to get rid of the thing they made (or take delivery of the thing they need). If you're a miner, or a farmer, you use this shit to make sure that at the end of the production cycle, you can get rid of the shit you made (and you won't get fucked by someone taking cash settlement over delivery). If you're a buyer, you use them to guarantee that you'll get whatever the shit is that you'll need at a price agreed in advance. Because they're OTC, you can also exactly tailor them to the requirements of your particular circumstances. These contracts are incredibly byzantine (and there are even crazier synthetic forwards you can see in money markets for the true degenerate fund managers). In my experience, only Texan oilfield magnates, commodities traders, and the weirdo forex crowd fuck with them. I (i) do not own a 10 gallon hat or a novelty size belt buckle (ii) do not wake up in the middle of the night freaking out about the price of pork fat and (iii) love greenbacks too much to care about other countries' monopoly money, so I don't fuck with them. (iii) Collars No, not the kind your wife is encouraging you to wear try out to 'spice things up' in the bedroom during quarantine. Collars are actually the hedging strategy most applicable to WSB. Collars deal with options! Hooray! To execute a basic collar (also called a wrapper by tea-drinking Brits and people from the Antipodes), you buy an out of the money put while simultaneously writing a covered call on the same equity. The put protects your position against price drops and writing the call produces income that offsets the put premium. Doing this limits your tendies (you can only profit up to the strike price of the call) but also writes down your risk. If you screen large volume trades with a VOL/OI of more than 3 or 4x (and they're not bullshit biotech stocks), you can sometimes see these being constructed in real time as hedge funds protect themselves on their shorts. (3) All About ISDAs, CDS and Synthetic CDOs You may have heard about the mythical ISDA. Much like an indenture (discussed in my post on $F), it's a magic legal machine that lets you build swaps via trade confirms with a willing counterparty. They are very complicated legal documents and you need to be a true expert to fuck with them. Fortunately, I am, so I do. They're made of two parts; a Master (which is a form agreement that's always the same) and a Schedule (which amends the Master to include your specific terms). They are also the engine behind just about every major credit crunch of the last 10+ years. First - a brief explainer. An ISDA is a not in and of itself a hedge - it's an umbrella contract that governs the terms of your swaps, which you use to construct your hedge position. You can trade commodities, forex, rates, whatever, all under the same ISDA. Let me explain. Remember when we talked about swaps? Right. So. You can trade swaps on just about anything. In the late 90s and early 2000s, people had the smart idea of using other people's debt and or credit ratings as the variable leg of swap documentation. These are called credit default swaps. I was actually starting out at a bank during this time and, I gotta tell you, the only thing I can compare people's enthusiasm for this shit to was that moment in your early teens when you discover jerking off. Except, unlike your bathroom bound shame sessions to Mom's Sears catalogue, every single person you know felt that way too; and they're all doing it at once. It was a fiscal circlejerk of epic proportions, and the financial crisis was the inevitable bukkake finish. WSB autism is absolutely no comparison for the enthusiasm people had during this time for lighting each other's money on fire. Here's how it works. You pick a company. Any company. Maybe even your own! And then you write a swap. In the swap, you define "Credit Event" with respect to that company's debt as the variable leg . And you write in... whatever you want. A ratings downgrade, default under the docs, failure to meet a leverage ratio or FCCR for a certain testing period... whatever. Now, this started out as a hedge position, just like we discussed above. The purest of intentions, of course. But then people realized - if bad shit happens, you make money. And banks... don't like calling in loans or forcing bankruptcies. Can you smell what the moral hazard is cooking? Enter synthetic CDOs. CDOs are basically pools of asset backed securities that invest in debt (loans or bonds). They've been around for a minute but they got famous in the 2000s because a shitload of them containing subprime mortgage debt went belly up in 2008. This got a lot of publicity because a lot of sad looking rednecks got foreclosed on and were interviewed on CNBC. "OH!", the people cried. "Look at those big bad bankers buying up subprime loans! They caused this!". Wrong answer, America. The debt wasn't the problem. What a lot of people don't realize is that the real meat of the problem was not in regular way CDOs investing in bundles of shit mortgage debts in synthetic CDOs investing in CDS predicated on that debt. They're synthetic because they don't have a stake in the actual underlying debt; just the instruments riding on the coattails. The reason these are so popular (and remain so) is that smart structured attorneys and bankers like your faithful correspondent realized that an even more profitable and efficient way of building high yield products with limited downside was investing in instruments that profit from failure of debt and in instruments that rely on that debt and then hedging that exposure with other CDS instruments in paired trades, and on and on up the chain. The problem with doing this was that everyone wound up exposed to everybody else's books as a result, and when one went tits up, everybody did. Hence, recession, Basel III, etc. Thanks, Obama. Heavy investment in CDS can also have a warping effect on the price of debt (something else that happened during the pre-financial crisis years and is starting to happen again now). This happens in three different ways. (1) Investors who previously were long on the debt hedge their position by selling CDS protection on the underlying, putting downward pressure on the debt price. (2) Investors who previously shorted the debt switch to buying CDS protection because the relatively illiquid debt (partic. when its a bond) trades at a discount below par compared to the CDS. The resulting reduction in short selling puts upward pressure on the bond price. (3) The delta in price and actual value of the debt tempts some investors to become NBTs (neg basis traders) who long the debt and purchase CDS protection. If traders can't take leverage, nothing happens to the price of the debt. If basis traders can take leverage (which is nearly always the case because they're holding a hedged position), they can push up or depress the debt price, goosing swap premiums etc. Anyway. Enough technical details. I could keep going. This is a fascinating topic that is very poorly understood and explained, mainly because the people that caused it all still work on the street and use the same tactics today (it's also terribly taught at business schools because none of the teachers were actually around to see how this played out live). But it relates to the topic of today's lesson, so I thought I'd include it here. Work depending, I'll be back next week with a covenant breakdown. Most upvoted ticker gets the post. *EDIT 1\* In a total blowout, $PLAY won. So it's D&B time next week. Post will drop Monday at market open.
[TUTORIAL] How to use Multi-Monitors with Hybrid Graphics Card Intel-Nvidia in notebooks (tried with: Asus Rog Strix G531-GT) - DEBIAN BUSTER
Hello guys! I`m going to do this tutorial because i tried to use multi-monitor in my laptop for a long time and that was a big problem for my case. This tutorial is for people who have a hybrid graphics card and bumblebee in debian. My case: - Rog Strix G531-GT (notebook) - Intel® UHD Graphics 630 - GTX 1650 So, to it work, first you need to install all the NVIDIA drivers and get it working with the optirun command. In my case i tried stable nvidia drivers which was Version 418.152, but it have some bugs after install when i tried to configure the xorg.conf file, which when start says something about missing device "mouse0". I reinstall all the debian and tried to use the backports, which have the Version 440.100 (via buster-backports) of nvidia drivers, and it installed well. #ONLY USE BACKPORTS OR ONLY USE STABLE, DO NOT USE BOTH! FIRST, VERY IMPORTANT: You should check which driver is okay for you, maybe trying one, if that is good and u dont see "bugs" when trying to configure, use it... In my case 418.152 give me a lot of bugs... i tried 440.100 and it worked ok. If you are using backports, try to download everything at the BACKPORTS, and not the STABLE one! If u are using the STABLE one, continues using the STABLE To do it, first add the backport repository to /etc/apt/sources.list, which actually is deb http://deb.debian.org/debian buster-backports main contrib non-free deb-src http://deb.debian.org/debian buster-backports main contrib non-free After that, to install linux headers and nvidia-driver do: - apt update - apt install -t buster-backports linux-headers-amd64 - apt install -t buster-backports nvidia-driver Reboot and after that u already have the nvidia-drivers installed, BUT not working because the system dont use the nvidia driver by default. Next step is installation of two packages: bumblebee-nvidia and primus. So now you need to install bumblebee: - apt install -t buster-backports bumblebee-nvidia primus - apt install -t buster-backports mesa-utils \you will need the) mesa-utilstoo for some commands I didnt need permissions to use the bumblebee commands, but if you need, follow that Post-installation You may need to blacklist the nouveaudrivers, because we are using the nvidia proprietary drivers. To do it, run: - $ sudo bash -c "echo blacklist nouveau > /etc/modprobe.d/blacklist-nvidia-nouveau.conf" - $ sudo bash -c "echo options nouveau modeset=0 >> /etc/modprobe.d/blacklist-nvidia-nouveau.conf" then run - $ cat /etc/modprobe.d/blacklist-nvidia-nouveau.conf And the output should be like that: blacklist nouveau options nouveau modeset=0 The nouveau drivers are blacklisted successfully! Now we have a lot of configurations to do. The next thing to do is go to /etc/bumblebee/bumblebee.conf and open with nano. add - Driver=nvidia it should looks like:
# Configuration file for Bumblebee. Values should **not** be put between quotes ## Server options. Any change made in this section will need a server restart # to take effect. [bumblebeed] # The secondary Xorg server DISPLAY number VirtualDisplay=:8 # Should the unused Xorg server be kept running? Set this to true if waiting # for X to be ready is too long and don't need power management at all. KeepUnusedXServer=false # The name of the Bumbleblee server group name (GID name) ServerGroup=bumblebee # Card power state at exit. Set to false if the card shoud be ON when Bumblebee # server exits. TurnCardOffAtExit=false # The default behavior of '-f' option on optirun. If set to "true", '-f' will # be ignored. NoEcoModeOverride=false # The Driver used by Bumblebee server. If this value is not set (or empty), # auto-detection is performed. The available drivers are nvidia and nouveau # (See also the driver-specific sections below) Driver=nvidia # Directory with a dummy config file to pass as a -configdir to secondary X XorgConfDir=/etc/bumblebee/xorg.conf.d # Xorg binary to run XorgBinary=/uslib/xorg/Xorg ## Client options. Will take effect on the next optirun executed. [optirun] # Acceleration/ rendering bridge, possible values are auto, virtualgl and # primus. Bridge=auto # The method used for VirtualGL to transport frames between X servers. # Possible values are proxy, jpeg, rgb, xv and yuv. VGLTransport=proxy # List of paths which are searched for the primus libGL.so.1 when using # the primus bridge PrimusLibraryPath=/uslib/x86_64-linux-gnu/primus:/uslib/i386-linux-gnu/primus # Should the program run under optirun even if Bumblebee server or nvidia card # is not available? AllowFallbackToIGC=false # Driver-specific settings are grouped under [driver-NAME]. The sections are # parsed if the Driver setting in [bumblebeed] is set to NAME (or if auto- # detection resolves to NAME). # PMMethod: method to use for saving power by disabling the nvidia card, valid # values are: auto - automatically detect which PM method to use # bbswitch - new in BB 3, recommended if available
After that, go to /etc/bumblebee/xorg.conf.nouveau and open with nano. add - BusID "", ex. BusID "PCI:00:02:0" in the Section "Device" \ to see the ID of your graphic cards, run in console: lspci | egrep 'VGA|3D') it should looks like:
# Configuration file for Bumblebee. Values should **not** be put between quotes ## Server options. Any change made in this section will need a server restart # to take effect. [bumblebeed] # The secondary Xorg server DISPLAY number VirtualDisplay=:8 # Should the unused Xorg server be kept running? Set this to true if waiting # for X to be ready is too long and don't need power management at all. KeepUnusedXServer=false # The name of the Bumbleblee server group name (GID name) ServerGroup=bumblebee # Card power state at exit. Set to false if the card shoud be ON when Bumblebee # server exits. TurnCardOffAtExit=false # The default behavior of '-f' option on optirun. If set to "true", '-f' will # be ignored. NoEcoModeOverride=false # The Driver used by Bumblebee server. If this value is not set (or empty), # auto-detection is performed. The available drivers are nvidia and nouveau # (See also the driver-specific sections below) Driver=nvidia # Directory with a dummy config file to pass as a -configdir to secondary X XorgConfDir=/etc/bumblebee/xorg.conf.d # Xorg binary to run XorgBinary=/uslib/xorg/Xorg ## Client options. Will take effect on the next optirun executed. [optirun] # Acceleration/ rendering bridge, possible values are auto, virtualgl and # primus. Bridge=auto # The method used for VirtualGL to transport frames between X servers. # Possible values are proxy, jpeg, rgb, xv and yuv. VGLTransport=proxy # List of paths which are searched for the primus libGL.so.1 when using # the primus bridge PrimusLibraryPath=/uslib/x86_64-linux-gnu/primus:/uslib/i386-linux-gnu/primus # Should the program run under optirun even if Bumblebee server or nvidia card # is not available? AllowFallbackToIGC=false # Driver-specific settings are grouped under [driver-NAME]. The sections are # parsed if the Driver setting in [bumblebeed] is set to NAME (or if auto- # detection resolves to NAME). # PMMethod: method to use for saving power by disabling the nvidia card, valid # values are: auto - automatically detect which PM method to use # bbswitch - new in BB 3, recommended if available # switcheroo - vga_switcheroo method, use at your own risk # none - disable PM completely # https://github.com/Bumblebee-Project/Bumblebee/wiki/Comparison-of-PM-methods ## Section with nvidia driver specific options, only parsed if Driver=nvidia [driver-nvidia] # Module name to load, defaults to Driver if empty or unset KernelDriver=nvidia PMMethod=auto # colon-separated path to the nvidia libraries LibraryPath=/uslib/x86_64-linux-gnu/nvidia:/uslib/i386-linux-gnu/nvidia:/uslib/x86_64-linux-gnu:/uslib/i386-linux-gnu # comma-separated path of the directory containing nvidia_drv.so and the # default Xorg modules path XorgModulePath=/uslib/nvidia,/uslib/xorg/modules XorgConfFile=/etc/bumblebee/xorg.conf.nvidia # If set to true, will always unload the kernel module(s) even with # PMMethod=none - useful for newer Optimus models on which the kernel power # management works out of the box to power the card on/off without bbswitch. AlwaysUnloadKernelDriver=false ## Section with nouveau driver specific options, only parsed if Driver=nouveau [driver-nouveau] KernelDriver=nouveau PMMethod=auto XorgConfFile=/etc/bumblebee/xorg.conf.nouveau
Do the same in /etc/bumblebee/xorg.conf.nvidia, and put the ID of the Discrete Nvidia Card. add - BusID "" add - Option "AllowEmptyInitialConfiguration" "true" and at the END of the file, add
Section "ServerLayout" Identifier "Layout0" Option "AutoAddDevices" "true" Option "AutoAddGPU" "false" EndSection Section "Device" Identifier "DiscreteNvidia" Driver "nvidia" VendorName "NVIDIA Corporation" # If the X server does not automatically detect your VGA device, # you can manually set it here. # To get the BusID prop, run `lspci | egrep 'VGA|3D'` and input the data # as you see in the commented example. # This Setting may be needed in some platforms with more than one # nvidia card, which may confuse the proprietary driver (e.g., # trying to take ownership of the wrong device). Also needed on Ubuntu 13.04. BusID "PCI:01:00:0" # Setting ProbeAllGpus to false prevents the new proprietary driver # instance spawned to try to control the integrated graphics card, # which is already being managed outside bumblebee. # This option doesn't hurt and it is required on platforms running # more than one nvidia graphics card with the proprietary driver. # (E.g. Macbook Pro pre-2010 with nVidia 9400M + 9600M GT). # If this option is not set, the new Xorg may blacken the screen and # render it unusable (unless you have some way to run killall Xorg). Option "ProbeAllGpus" "false" Option "AllowEmptyInitialConfiguration" "true" Option "NoLogo" "true" Option "UseEDID" "true" # Option "UseDisplayDevice" "none" EndSection Section "Screen" Identifier "Screen0" Device "DiscreteNVidia" EndSection
REBOOT NOW, IS IMPORTANT!! At this point, the TEST for bumblebee should be working!
Test Install mesa-demos and use glxgears to test if if Bumblebee works with your Optimus system: $ optirun glxgears -info If it fails, try the following commands: 64 bit system: $ optirun glxspheres64 32 bit system: $ optirun glxspheres32 If the window with animation shows up, Optimus with Bumblebee is working. Note: If glxgears failed, but glxspheresXX worked, always replace "glxgears" with "glxspheresXX" in all cases.
If the bumblebee still not working, you should look why isnt it working. You can ask me maybe i can help with some information! I tried a lot of things and maybe i can help. now finally, you can run anything with the optirun command, like: optirun virtualbox... or optirun (a game) and it will work with you graphic card. But still, when you connect a monitor at the HDMI output, the monitor will not work... For that, finnaly, we can do that: To use multi monitors, we need to see this section, which is what happen to me: Output wired to the NVIDIA chip At this point, you may need to configure the /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/20-intel.conf and /etc/bumblebee/xorg.conf.nvidia, as it says in the tutorial. After that reboot your system and try again the command: optirun intel-virtual-output It should finally works, if you have connected another monitor in HDMI output and try the command optirun intel-virtual-output, it will start in the monitor a continuation for the X session, which works pretty well!! Well, that was hard to do for me, and i hope that information can help someone. If something is confusing or you cant do the second monitor work, just type in comments, i will try to help... One important thing to do is: do not try to use xorg.conf file, just delete it and keep the linux to do it by itself. Every time which i tried to use the xorg.conf file it broke my gnome startup and i need to start debian in recovery mode and go to /etc/X11, and run rm -R xorg.conf (which delete the xorg file), or rename it to the linux do not read the informations there. #TIPS: For a good use of that, you can go to debian keyboard configuration, and configure a new shortcut with the command optirun intel-virtual-output. When you press ctrl+alt+y that will start the second monitor for you :D https://preview.redd.it/3luethknnfj51.png?width=987&format=png&auto=webp&s=a7eaf1a4c029237fd9b25ca0194c99d84fcb83a5 so that is #learning_with_linux thanks https://preview.redd.it/8g753mxelfj51.jpg?width=4032&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=1d24f618dcd3bb92a760a531112e5e3852e524d5
Let me tell you about Doomwood 3: Legacy of Darkness
If you haven't played the saga, go play the saga before I, saga, make you play the saga. Also this thing is spoiler tagged so yeah. If you're tired and want a summary, well sure, I liked it but it had some minor flaws with storytelling, as do most AE stories. Shined in another aspect though which is at the bottom, overall good. If you're bored, well grab some popcorn and turn down your brightness. You might be here for a while. I'm gonna tell you about each separate part of the saga and give an opinion on it, along with maybe a rating of some sort? I dunno, I might be too tired for that part. Anyways.... Starting with the initial cutscene, fighting undead with Artix is no surprised, if the saga takes place in doomwood. This is also the first time he's decked out in his ArchPaladin armour while being here, and the song, A Fight of Light and Darkness playing in the background got me interested and even a little hyped for what might follow. Rookie mistake. You can see everything starts to dip as soon as we introduce an actual potty joke that serves to be the driving force between Artix and us just happening to split up temporarily. I have to give credit to the animator (hopefully Ghost) as the Swerve through the enemies option in the cutscene surprised me on how clean it looked. After not barrel rolling, we get to the outhouse, only to be confronted by a nameless chrono who sends us to some point in the future and dies. I'm fine with the chrono to the future part, but the outhouse and abruptly dying just seem so out of place; they made him nameless so he could literally be our Uber driver to the future and just disappear so we have no way back. Ignoring this, we meet Stellaria, a pink paladin who just happens to be in the random time and place we've teleported to. Yay, convenient. She asks for our help and being a hero we do all of her quests until we spy on who looks to be the boss of the release, Kalron. Props for making him actually look like a cool fusion of undead and technology that looks like it use lasers. Basically, instead of just mindlessly killing, we figure out what they're doing, Kalron drones a guy who's apparently more important than the chronomancer, and we fight him. Blue screen of death, and that's the end of the first part, with the revelation that Stellaria is Artix's daughter, and Kyger the kid we helped has been napped. I will end up ranking this part as the worst, solely based on the setting and how exactly we got here, along with the fact that Kyger at the time just seemed to be dead weight which is weird when you think about how apparently important he is later. Fighting undead > Overused RPG character bathroom joke > Getting teleported into the future but we don't know when > Chrono just dies > Suddenly help a pink paladin fight a random army created through the fusion of Undead and Tech? That just SOUNDS messy before you even play it. However, the quests in the section themselves do make sense, especially Kyger's efforts to save his friends and things, so it's fine there. Just seems a little choppy. Rewards are now great and there's a solid amount of things to farm so I won't spend too much on the set grinding aspect of this. Onto the next part. I originally had this as the best part and I might change this, due to how the pacing felt nice, and it almost felt like a little larger than the average release would be, due to the inclusion of two maps and slightly long cutscenes combined with quests that follow the story and weren't tedious. However, the very first cutscene almost throws it away for me. Queenadent Odessa from what I've heard is an Easter egg from MQ, and she's accompanied by two guards of the force that slips my mind. Anyways, this cutscene is almost the definition of unnecessary, and just ends being disappointing. Odessa doesn't say she's gonna help, all she tells us is that there's a time machine, which I guess is useful info but we could've gotten that from somewhere else; the obvious info source we have relating to the undead techy guys. Leaves and never appears again and great we tell her our plans as well. Just a weird interaction. That aside, we have an awkward LOL moment with some random bioknight who wants the axe for his people, and we beat him up as per usual. Skip a bit and we're holding the axe, and speaking with Artix, which isn't too farfetched considering if he died, he'd just become a spirit orb that sticks with his own axe. AQW doesn't really do heartfelt conversations and tries to break up the tension with O_O Artix has multiple children jokes, but I still felt like this scene served its purpose. You know what I said about pacing earlier? Surprisingly this release is basically just halfway done now. Speeding through, we rescue kyger and fight against Kalron, who we vanquish, or at least clear his browser history and reboot his OS or something. More computer jokes yay. Everything here is fine, and it honestly felt like I had a lot to play through, which is why I'm putting it near the top, if not on top. Also did some decent teases (although they weren't that important) with the scrolling binary and the switch between English and Binary making me actually want to go translate them myself. It also sets up a plan for the next release, which follows well. Heading into stonewood deep, I'll give a quick summary. Asherion is Stellaria's big brother and the mole inside of the Deadtech fortress who now speaks to the Technolich directly, Artix has three children who we've all met now, and we're going to go teach Kyger how to be a paladin/archpaladin/warrior with rogue regen or something. After teaching kyger some actually important lessons, we whip out the old battle on line and defeat the boss of this week. They also say the probability of us succeeding in this next mission is smaller than the chance of triggering PWD. This one is either second, maybe even first on the list, as it also felt decently lengthy, and had some mechanics I haven't seen in a while. We had to build training dummies then fight those enemies, and we also just found a base of undead who we didn't massacre for no reason, which actually shows that we aren't just heartless. it's implied Kyger somehow actually helps us against Sir Kut which is unrealistic but whatever, kid somehow can wield an axe with one hand at like the age of what, 13? Self-inserts really don't work all the time do they...However the release ends with what I would call a wholesome photo montage that fades to a bleak looking success chance which, I guess you take any enjoyment you can get right? Finally the Finally. I mean finale. 3rd on the list, as I don't know what I was expecting but this was not it. In short, It's a war without Odessa, Asherion opens the door, we fight a mad weak mini mini boss, into the boss, into the boss v2. Anything in these cutscenes feels like odd details just attached to quests. First cutscene, I can assume vortrix sends the Chronomancer, which goes against what we've already said and things, and it also seems like vortrix literally knows what is going to happen. Second one, they remodeled the pally armour, stuck skulls on it and gave it some red tech upgrades and called it vortrix. So much for something threatening. Not only that, Vortrix says the exact same thing Kalron does about their objective, and the next part is literally, Kyger swings the axe to get first hit, then leaves the room and we take on the boss. The transformation cutscene is surprisingly underwhelming. It just seemed like deadtrix took a shot then he turned into a black blob and grew. Nothing even behind it, just 2nd form thank you. Thank goodness the bosses actually do some decent damage with ranges in the 300s. Even that's not that much when it comes down to it. Final cutscene is so dang disappointing. Even the photo montage isn't that important as it literally teleported twilly who was NOWHERE TO BE FOUND in the first cutscene into a random undead invasion for a stinky poop joke. I don't mind the cheers in the future, as those three are just celebrating their victory over a photo of us doing what we do best, while in our time, we're busy riding an outhouse down a hill. It ends with a moral and a powerpoint effect saying we beat the saga. Ironically, where this saga actually shines is in the rewards. Each of the parts in the story had its own new rewards along with some daily gifts, and this accumulated to make one huge merge shop you can sift through for cool things. Along with a new BLoD "grind" and a couple of other neat looking undeadslaying boosted weapons. But story wise, no no no we don't do that here. Remove Odessa and replace her with someone else we can learn the deadtech's objectives from other than just "spying" and that'll solidify my opinion of the second part starting in stonewood as the best. Did I mention Stonewood and the Tech Dungeon also have what seems to be a new unique track? Solid stuff but the order currently is as follows. Stonewood/Tech Dungeon > Stonewood Deep > Tech Fortress > Thorngarde. If you've been bored and made it here, lemme know what you think. I'm wasting hours writing about a flash game, so i need a break...
Making a super low cost trainer/dev kit. What do you wish you had in the kits/trainers you used to learn electronics?
Useless Backstory: My original plan was to design a digital logic trainer for my students that could be submerged in alcohol without damage, to sanitize between classes. I did that and the prototypes work great (Other components for scale) It's fair to assume the campus will close pretty quickly after the first spikes in covid cases. This means the original design won't be useful, students won't be in to share the equipment. Many departments plan to just gut their lab courses while some plan to throw huge tool/equipment costs at their students for at-home labs. I don't consider removing hands-on work a viable option, and equipment would cost a ton because the school store is terrible as far as where they can get products from, plus it takes its own cut of ~20%. The school store is the only way to pay for things with financial aid, so I have to go through them. I priced everything out for my original design and discovered the board is so unbelievably cheap ($22 vs the $350 we pay for just ONE of the trainers the students use) that I plan to just make a new version that also includes all the features from the analog, processor, and plc trainers. Should cover everything from learning ohm's law to designing and testing amplifiers, from digital logic through assembly language up to C++/Python, from relay/ladder logic to PLC programming. To the point: For reference, here's a google image search of what I am designing a replacement for. Click on some at random and check the prices and specs. There's no reason they should cost hundreds. The ones that don't cost a ton are just switches and buttons and leds wired to headers - something anyone here can do for $10. My goal is to add all the features from every single trainer I've seen/used but keep below 10% of the price of what is currently available. Each unit of equipment my students use (scopes, generators, supplies, digital/analog trainers, processor boards, plcs, etc) cost the department $5k+, and that's even after I got them to approve sparkfun as a vendor to save money. Assuming the students pick up shitty, low spec versions of everything for doing their labs at home, we're still looking at $1k. I like <$100 better, and would like the students to have something they can continue using to learn/develop electronics even after graduation. So far I'm at $48 per trainer, completely assembled and in a case and I'm just about ready to make the next batch of prototypes but want to know what additional features I should cram into it. What should I add that isn't listed below? Supplies: (1)+/- 19V 3A isolated supply (2)+/- 5V 1.5A supplies (1) 19V variable supply (1) Constant-current linear regulated supply (2) CV/CC switchmode supplies (fairly well filtered) Power input is by default USB-C 20V/100W but I got impatient waiting on the USB-C sockets to come in the mail and rigged one up with a laptop DC jack (19.5V) for testing. I liked it. Most people have a box of old adapters in their house so I might just throw empty spots all around the back edge with the traces and pads for 10 different types of sockets so that anyone can use any supply they have lying around within the 18-34v 3A+ range. It already has overvoltage/undervoltage/overcurrent protection, adding a receiver for laptop signal pins that tell the system what the power brick is rated for would be easy. There's also a USB micro-b port that can power everything but the analog supplies. It is also used for reprogramming firmware in the event of serious corruption, but updates and changes by default occur over wifi. Outputs: (1) 500mA Isolated Function Generator (12.5Mhz) (1) function generator that acts as a 16.5V 1A CT transformer output (max 1mhz) (2) digital clocks (1hz - 40khz) (1) digital clock (1khz to 200mhz) (24) 50mA 3-state digital outputs, protected from short circuits to any other line on the board, including the analog voltages. Each is configurable to a switch, button, low frequency clock, or tied to the PLC emulator or processor used for teaching programming. Communication: Wifi/Bluetooth, USB client and host, Modbus TCP/IP, Modbus RTU, CAN bus, i2c, i2s, spi, plus anything slow enough to be bitbanged will also be available as a feature through the UI, but not have a dedicated port. For example, you can load a 1-24 bit binary string in through the switches and shift it into 74000 series shift registers. Inputs: (4) Multimeters with 10mV precision, two of which are differential and isolated. (24) 3-state digital inputs (+/- 20V capable, configurable logic levels) (2) analog inputs (1Msps) - I hesitate to call it an oscilloscope because the next revision will include an FPGA that can actually handle huge amounts of data at high frequency. For now it dumps the data to a RAM IC and the main processor grabs a selection of addresses and renders a graph on the screen. There's no interrupts or anything that could get sub-clockcycle measurements on transitions directly from that data. (2) 100mhz counters with automatic or adjustable trigger. User Interface: 3.5" color touch screen - while every feature can be accessed from the touch screen, it's mostly for configuring things. I've made sure to put all features as physical buttons, switches, and knobs. Wifi AP with captive portal - same access as the touch screen, but also used for uploading code to the processors (ASM ide and arduino ide) or PLC emulator (openplc). Working with a friend to help ensure mobile/tablet compatibility. Bluetooth - available but not currently used. Features: IC testing with learning function - throw any common DIP chip into a socket and it will test whether it's fried. The UI also allows you to add in new chips, where you define which pins are inputs, outputs, power, ground, oscillator, analog, etc and whether you want it to automatically learn from every possible input configuration or a set sequence of commands. This includes i2c/spi chips. Programming microcontrollers - throw a dip uC into the same socket as the ic tester and it'll configure itself to whatever pinout you define or select from a list. Already have a USB ISP for AVR but will add loads of ports matching the most popular in-system-programmers. Matrix I/O sniffing - plug any matrix keypad or matrix led display into the I/O lines and it will automatically map them for you. Communications sniffing - find IR remote codes, i2c addresses, RF codes, etc without external circuitry. Compatibility with the Analog Discovery 2, Atmel ICE, LabView/Multisim, and I'm tinkering with SCPI to connect to bench equipment. PLC Programming through OpenPLC. Full diagnostic utility with schematic and fault indication through the UI. It will literally tell you what is wrong within a 1 centimetre radius on the board, show you the PCB/silkscreen of the area and optionally the schematic, and tell you what to replace to fix it. I added fault detection with port expanders, analog multiplexers, and dummy loads to help me test my original prototypes. It was supposed to be temporary but the work is already done and only added $5 to the total cost so now it's going to be in every future revision. Not a big jump to add pictures of every subcircuit PCB traces/silkscreen. As an added note, when I'm done with each set of prototypes I plan to give them away on this subreddit for free, but I want to be sure there's no liability on my part. I'm concerned because all but the last version won't have UL/FCC/CE compliance. If anyone could direct me to information on this sort of thing, I'd really appreciate it. I'm thinking maybe I just directly call them "as-is" or defective or scrap?
Tried Logistic Regression - What Next? (classification problem)
I have data which is a mix of continuous variables and ordinal/categorical variables which I have created dummies for. I have tried to fit a logistic regression model to do binary or multiclass one vs rest classification. However the accuracy isn't great (not entirely unexpected) so now I am wondering where to go from here:
Is it likely another model will give better results than logistic regression? Or is it just my data is not well correlated with the dependent variables?
Hi all, I hope someone would be able to shed some light on my analysis that I’m doing for my masters thesis project. I have to analyze pre-existing survey data to determine if there’s an association between child maltreatment & Life satisfaction. (This is a long one, I’m sorry in advance) As covid is going on, I’m not able to get prof help in person so I’ve been really struggling and any help is much appreciated! My exposure variable is child maltreatment and composes 6 questions, of which the possible response options are: 1-5 (never, 1 or 2 times, 3 to 5 times, 6 to 10 times, 10+ times). I want to transform this variable into a binary variable of “ever abused -yes/no” as well as collate into a joint variable, so the scores will go from 6 (never abused for all 6 items) to 30 (abused 10+ times for all items). The dependent variable is life satisfaction measured on a scale of 1-10 and it has been condensed into a scale of 5 categories, from “very satisfied” to “very dissatisfied”. I’ve been using this grouped 5-category life satisfaction variable as the dependent variable in all my analyses so far, is this appropriate ? I’m confused how these analyses are actually accounting for each category of the dependent variable ? My main question is regarding the analysis. I wanted to do a multiple linear regression but the dependent variable (life satisfaction) is not normally distributed so I feel I’m not able to do it that way. My second option is to do an ordinal regression and I’ve been testing the assumptions but can’t seem to understand how to test for assumption 4(proportional odds). I’m trying to do a binary logistic regression as some posts say online but the values that are computed for df and the -log (logit) values are so large they just can’t be right. Is the ordinal regression the appropriate analysis to use? And if so when I am checking assumptions Do I NOT have to clarify which variables I’m using as my confounders/interaction variables and which is my independent variable ? Also, should I be using the newly computed independent variables (the 6-30 count variable& the binary yes/no abused variable) ? Or the 6 individual items that pertain to each question on abuse? And if so am I able to include all of these in the same model? All of my confounders/interaction terms I’m using are categorical variables with at least 2 categories, and at most 14 categories (age has been collapsed into 14 categories including 5 ages in each group, i.e., 15-19,20-24,25-29). When I checked for multicollinearity, I was told to do a linear regression and include all terms; the categorical variables as their dummy variables (so to include the 3 dummy variables coded for a variable that had initially 4 categories) and if the VIF was larger than 10 then to not include that variable. Is this correct? SPSS ended up showing 6 different variables with VIF values much larger than 10 for several of the categories for each variable so does that mean I just take them out at this step and not even include them in the actual ordinal regression? Two of the problematic variables were two of the items on abuse, so when I removed one from the analysis then the other’s VIF value significantly dropped below 10. So in this case would I modify the joint 6-30 count variable on abuse to only be 5-25? I’m so sorry for all the questions, I know this is such a ramble but if anyone has any experience with ordinal regression in SPSS and is willing to spare a few mins to speak with me I would be forever grateful! Thank you in advance!
The name of my python script is kled.py This is the message I used to create it:
pyinstaller kled.py --windowed
Here is the error message I get when I execute the terminal file located in dist(a folder called kled)(executable terminal file called kled)
 Error loading Python lib '/Users/john/Documents/chill.py/kledfinal/dist/kled/Python': dlopen: dlopen(/Users/john/Documents/chill.py/kledfinal/dist/kled/Python, 10): no suitable image found. Did find: /Users/john/Documents/chill.py/kledfinal/dist/kled/Python: code signature invalid for '/Users/john/Documents/chill.py/kledfinal/dist/kled/Python'
When I double click the application it has created it appears to open in my dock, and then goes away, nothing actually opens. Here are the resources I've already looked at but didn't find success from: https://github.com/pyinstallepyinstalleissues/2150 - I don't understand the solution they found. The two people troubleshooting didn't explain the steps they were taking so I couldn't follow. https://github.com/pyinstallepyinstalleissues/3499 - This is where I got the idea to change my spec files, because in his pyinstaller command it seems like he has a specific spec file he was trying to use. https://pyinstaller.readthedocs.io/en/stable/spec-files.html - I thought maybe I could edit my spec file to include the modules or python version it might be missing, but no other results told me how to properly set up my spec file to do this. I was originally trying to use py2app and if any of you know it, you will know that setup.py basically lets you hand pick all the files and stuff you need. Unfortunately py2app has a huge amount of issues in general so I decided my error wasn't going to get fixed, but pyinstaller seems to have some experts so maybe you guys can help. https://stackoverflow.com/questions/60678697/error-loading-python-lib-with-pyinstaller-on-macos - went through the steps and it just didn't work for me. Same outcome where the application doesn't work and the executable terminal file called kled says that it had an Error loading python lib. RESOURCES YOU MIGHT NEED (idk I'm just guessing but here is some stuff) my kled.spec file:
Follow theOpenCore guideexactly, EXACTLY and ONLY that. You will have to make your own config.plist (probably), so go through that guide step by step, it'stwo hours tops. If you want to hurry, don't. (I had to redo it twice.) I'll explain my way below!
Copying a config.plistcan go well (if you have the very same setup), but I advice you to do it yourself. I will provide my config.plist below (Platforminfo must be filled in by you!).
Get help on Google, then on reddit/Discord! I cannot provide as good help as others; I'm a n00b too... ;P
-- PLEASE BE ADISED THAT THERE ARE NEWER VERSIONS OF OPENCORE AND THAT THE PATH BELOW (ESPECIALLY THE CONFIG CHANGES) MIGHT NOT WORK WITH OC VERSIONS AFTER 0.5.5!! -- For a working EFI folder for OC 0.5.6 see in the comments.
My Hackintosh configuration
macOS Catalina 10.15.3
The following EFI is on my OpenCore stick. There is also the latest macOS on there. If you go for DualBoot, keep this stick around & updated as Windows seems to be able to mess around with your EFI... With this stick you'll always be able to boot your Hackintosh and repair its EFI partition.
FULL EFI FOLDER: See in comments ("PlatformInfo" has to be populated in config.plist - see below... You can copy over the info from your current config. Also, my changes in DeviceProperties/Add might be a problem for your storage setup.)
Probably outdated: All of the following modifications are for OC 0.5.5. If you are on a later version of OC it is likely that these have changed!
5 initial Warnings removed.
DeviceProperties/Add: Removed "PciRoot(0x0)/Pci(0x1b,0x0)" and "PciRoot(0x0)/Pci(0x2,0x0)" as well as their children
Added Key "PciRoot(0x0)/Pci(0x1,0x1)/Pci(0x0,0x0)" as child of "Add" with Type "Directory". Added child beneath the just made child with name "built-in", type "Data" and value "01000000". To address drive issue above, see here.
Populated this config.plist with OC snapshot function of ProperTree (CMD/CTRL+R, point to EFI/OC/) . Adds KEXTs and SSDT.
Kernel/Emulate: Removed "CpuidMask" and "CpuidData" (were blank anyway).
(You'll need 3 USB sticks! 2 with at least 4GB, 1 with at least 8GB. I am not sure, whether the Linux Part is really necessary, or if the partitioning can also be done from the macOS or Win10 stick...) A) The basic build
Installed Windows 10 from USB stick [8GB] (made from Microsoft Media Creation Tool, instructions here, don't forget to install in UEFI mode - see second link in 3.!). Did some fan adjustments in BIOS too... Keep that stick!
Set up Windows 10, installeddrivers(seehere,here).
InstalledPython 3.7! (For SSDTTime, below. Don't get Python 3.8.1!)
Do not set up Windows too much yet, it will be deleted completely and reinstalled again. B) Creating the OpenCore Stick
Booted again, with the OpenCore Stick connected, temporarily changed the boot partition with F11 and chose my stick (some of the above mentioned config.plist changes were applied AFTER this step, because certain errors occured):
Got to the boot picker and reset NVRAM.
Restarted the same way and chose the macOS installer (Step 3).
Went into the macOS installer's Disk Manager. Formatted the whole internal SSD (maybe ExFat? Probably doesn't matter) and made two partitions for macOS (APFS) and Windows (don't remember what, maybe ExFat?, doesn't matter)
Exit the Disk Manager and enter the installer. Install macOS. Maybe create a backup of that.
Searched for "Disks". Designated the 200MB partition from above as EFI (I believe via the cog wheels > Format Partition). Close that window.
Searched in progs for "GParted":
Format the second, partition to NTFS.
(You should see three partitions on your internal SSD: EFI, Mac (APFS - probably unrecognised) and Windows)
Shut down Linux.
Boot with Windows Stick connected into the Windows installer.
Install Windows on that NTFS partition.
(Mac and Windows will write their EFI on the same partition! Keep at least your OpenCore Stick!!)
F) Finished. Set up both machines (Windows:hereandhere) completely!! :D
Mapped my ports by removing the XHC0 controller with this kext completely (lost two ports in the process, but that's ok) and (optionally) mapped the PTXH controller with this kext (you might have to adjust this!). For why, see here. See here and here, too!
With the end of November in sight, it’s time to check out MAME 0.216! We’ve addressed the reported issues with last month’s bgfx update, and made a whole lot of little improvements to MAME’s internal user interface. In particular, setting up controls should be easier, and several issues affecting macOS users with non-English number format settings have been fixed. Some of the issues caused bad settings to be written to INI files. If you still don’t see the filter list panel on the system selection menu, try removing the ui.ini file. This month, we’re able to present two unreleased 1970s prototypes from Italian developer Model Racing: their internal code names are Cane and Orbite. With the assistance of former Model Racing employees, the source code was extracted from the original disks. These games are incomplete, but they provide a unique look into early CPU-based arcade development. Game & Watch titles continue to be emulated, with the addition of Mario The Juggler, and the panorama screen Mickey Mouse and Donkey Kong Circus games in this release. This release brings GameKing emulation to MAME. The system-on-a-chip used in this low-cost, low-resolution hand-held console from the early 2000s has been identified and emulated. Games for the colour-screen GameKing III are also playable. Acorn BBC Micro emulation has been re-worked to support internal expansion boards, and a number of additional peripherals are now available. ZX Spectrum emulation has been enhanced with better open bus read behaviour and support for two Miles Gordon Technology peripherals. Of course, these are just the highlights. You can get the source and Windows binary packages from the download page.
MAMETesters Bugs Fixed
05177: [Crash/Freeze] (studio2.cpp) All studio2 variants: Memory map does not support cartridges larger than 1 kB. (Robbbert)
05600: [Graphics] (popeye.cpp) popeye and clones: Games use interlaced video output. (Couriersud)
07386: [DIP/Input] (qix.cpp) zookeep, kram and clones: Unable to start game or use first coin slot. (O. Galibert)
Vs Maxx Texas Hold'em TV Poker - 6 Player Edition (UK) [David Haywood, Morten Shearman Kirkegaard, Peter Wilhelmsen]
VTech DynamiDesk (Germany) [TeamEurope]
VTech Mis Primeras Lecciones (Spain) [ClawGrip]
Yu-Gi-Oh Monster Capsule [SpinalFeyd, R. Belmont]
New clones marked as NOT_WORKING
286 motherboards with Suntac ST62C303-A chipset [rfka01]
Abit AB-AH4 [rfka01]
Abit AB-PI4 [rfka01]
AEG Olympia Olystar 20F [rfka01]
Arstoria AS496 [rfka01]
Biostar MB-1433UCV [rfka01]
Channel Three [TeamEurope, Grull Osgo, Ivan Vangelista]
Chicago Cubs' Triple Play (German) [PinMAME]
Comus Instruments Ltd. Comus Daisy [Nigel Barnes, Centre for Computing History]
Corona Data Systems, Inc. Cordata PPC-400 [rfka01]
Eagle EAGLEN486 GC10A [rfka01]
First International Computer 486 KVD [rfka01]
Highscreen 486-25 [rfka01]
Leading Edge Hardware Products, Inc. Model D [rfka01]
Mephisto (Stargame) (newer?) [jordigahan]
NAT48PV-1.00 VL [rfka01]
Oba-Oba (old hardware) [PinMAME]
Philips NMS 9100 [rfka01]
Shuttle Computer International HOT-307H [rfka01]
Shuttle Computer International HOT-419 [rfka01]
SOYO SY-4SAW2 [rfka01]
Space Train (Pinball, old hardware) [PinMAME]
Tandy Radio Shack Videotex [cuba200611]
Video Technology PreComputer 2000 (Spain) [ClawGrip]
VTech Pitagorin [ClawGrip]
Wang Laboratories, Inc. PC-250/16 [rfka01]
New working software list additions
Certificates and More! (cleanly cracked), The Cosmic Balance (cleanly cracked), Empire III: Armageddon (Version 1.1) (cleanly cracked), Fractions: Addition (cleanly cracked), Labyrinth of Crete (cleanly cracked), Labyrinth: The Computer Game (Lucasfilm Games) (cleanly cracked), MECC-A315 Freedom! (Version 1.0) (cleanly cracked), Questron (cleanly cracked), The Tournament Manager (cleanly cracked) [4am, Firehawke]
The Adventures of Kristen and Her Family (cleanly cracked), Korg 800 4-Track MIDI Sequencer (Version 1.0) (cleanly cracked), Leadsheeter (cleanly cracked), MIDI/8 Plus (Version 1.2) (cleanly cracked), PolyWriter (Version 1.2) (cleanly cracked), PolyWriter Utilities (Version 1.2) (cleanly cracked) [4am, san, Firehawke]
The Railroad Works (CBS Version) (cleanly cracked) [Tom Greene, Firehawke]
Anti-M (version 1.6) [4am, Firehawke]
Best of Muse (16 Sector + LC Patch) [Tom Greene, Firehawke]
apple2_flop_orig: Appilot Edu-Disk, Asteroid, Beneath The Pyramids, The Best of MUSE, Bloody Murder, Buck Rogers: Planet of Zoom, Checker King, Deadline (Release 26 / 821108), Earthquake: San Francisco 1906, Empire III: Armageddon (Version 1.1), Flight Simulator I (A2-FS1), Gammon Gambler, Gulf Strike, Hacker II: The Doomsday Papers, How The West Was One + Three x Four, In Search of Space: Introduction to Model Rocketry, Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom, Indiana Jones in Revenge of the Ancients, Lane Mastodon vs. The Blubbermen, Law of the West, Little Computer People, Lords of Conquest, Master of the Lamps, MicroChess (Version 2.0), Might and Magic Book Two, Pandora's Box, Pharaoh's Revenge, Physics of Model Rocketry, Punctuation: Building Better Language Skills, Realm of Impossibility, Roadwar 2000 (Version 1.1), Super Zaxxon, Video Vegas (Version 12501), Word Zapper [4am, Firehawke]
neogeo: Real Bout Fatal Fury / Real Bout Garou Densetsu (Korean release, bug fix revision) [jysx012]
sms: Sonic the Hedgehog Chaos (Euro, prototype 19930713) [Hidden Palace]
La Mode - 1984 (Programa Computado) [ClawGrip, avlixa, ICEknight]
DISCiPLE System Tape v3b [TwistedTom]
spectrum_mgt_flop: DISCiPLE System Disk v2, DISCiPLE System Disk v2b, DISCiPLE System Disk v2c, DISCiPLE System Disk v3a, DISCiPLE System Disk v3b, DISCiPLE System Disk v3d, Pick-Poke-It, Plus D System Disk v2a, Uni-Dos [TwistedTom]
studio2: RCA demo [Robbbert]
visicom: Gambler I, Gambler II, Sansuu Drill, Space Command [unknown]
Binary numbers are base 2 numbers, and have only two values – 0 and 1. If we look at a binary number like 101, then we can again assign column values as we did with our decimal number, but this time we use 2, and not 10 as the base. So binary 101 binary has 1 in the units column,0 in the 2s column and 1 in the 4s column. Binary Options Trading for Dummies. Posted on June 20, 2017 by admin. Binary Options Trading is an interesting and novel method in financial markets. It has the term binary in it because as a trader, you are left with only two options in binary trading. Though as this may seem like a risky business, it’s predictable and with a certain amount ... Binary options is one of the riskiest markets out there so it's a good idea to deal with local platforms that are registered in your home country. Most platforms require you to make a certain amount of trades before funds are released. Another hint is to not get into the market trying to become rich quickly as this is a recipe for disaster. There is no doubt that trading in binary options offers the potential to generate a considerable return on your investment ( even for dummies ). However, it also presents an opportunity for the uninformed and inexperienced to simply lose money. Although the basic premise, of predicting the movement of the price of an asset, is simple; there are a variety of factors which must be taken into ... Trading Binary Options For Dummies. Anyone can trade binary options. Even a dummy can win any given binary trade, too. It is one or the other choice, it is hard to get it that wrong all of the time. However, to be a long term winner you have to develop a method and strategy that works for you. You have to consistently profit by winning more ...
Strategies - 7 Binary Options for Dummies - YouTube
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